The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 11 , 3547 - 3550

Patients With Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty Experience Massive Blood Loss

Goel, Rahul et al.


Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the preferred treatment for chronic periprosthetic joint infection following total hip arthroplasty (THA). These patients are at high risk of substantial blood loss and perioperative blood transfusion. Our study aimed at determining risk factors for blood transfusion during a 2-stage exchange for infected THA.


Medical records of 297 patients with infected THA who underwent 2-stage exchange arthroplasty from 1997 to 2016 were reviewed. Blood loss was calculated using a validated formula. Transfusion data, clinical information, and operative data were gathered to determine predictors of blood loss and risk factors for perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion.


Calculated blood loss was significantly higher during reimplantation than resection arthroplasty (5156.0 ± 3402 mL vs 3706.9 ± 2148 mL; P < .0001). Blood transfusion was needed in 81% after resection and 81.1% after reimplantation. Allogeneic blood transfusion averaged 3.6 ± 1.8 units for stage 1 and 4.2 ± 2.9 units for stage 2 (P = .0066). Patient characteristics that increased the likelihood for perioperative blood transfusions were increasing preoperative international normalized ratio, type 2 diabetes, current smoking, age, and transfusion requirement in the first stage. Tranexamic acid usage was associated with decreased blood loss.


Patients with periprosthetic joint infection following THA have significant blood loss during both stages of exchange arthroplasty, especially reimplantation. Hematological optimization should be considered in all patients requiring a transfusion after the first stage, as these patients are at greater risk of requiring transfusion after the second stage. The use of tranexamic acid dramatically decreases the risk of requiring a transfusion in both stages and should be more ubiquitously incorporated into blood management protocols.

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