The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 1, 188 - 192.e2

Patient Characteristics Influence Revision Rate of Total Hip Arthroplasty: American Society of Anesthesiologists Score and Body Mass Index Were the Strongest Predictors for Short-Term Revision After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

Peters, Rinne M. et al.
Hip

Background

Outcome and survival after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be affected by patient characteristics. We examined the effect of case-mix on revision after primary THA using the Dutch Arthroplasty Register.

Methods

Our cohort included all primary THAs (n = 218,214) performed in patients with osteoarthritis in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2018. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the difference in survivorship in patients with different patient characteristics (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, body mass index [BMI], Charnley score, smoking, and previous operations to the hip).

Results

Case-mix factors associated with an increased risk for revision 1 year after THA were the following: a high ASA score (II and III-IV) (odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.0 and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.3), a higher BMI (30-40 and >40) (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-1.7), age ≥75 years (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), and male gender (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). A similar model for 3-year revision showed comparable results. High BMI (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9), a previous hip operation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), ASA III-IV (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1-1.6), and Charnley score C (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) were associated with increased risk for revision. Main reasons for revision in obese and ASA II-IV patients were infection, dislocation, and periprosthetic fracture. Patients with femoral neck fracture and late post-traumatic pathology were more likely to be revised within 3 years, compared to osteoarthritis patients (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7).

Conclusion

The short-term risk for revision after primary THA is influenced by case-mix factors. ASA score and BMI (especially >40) were the strongest predictors for 1-year revision after primary THA. After 3 years, BMI and previous hip surgery were independent risk factors for revision. This will help surgeons to identify and counsel high-risk patients and take appropriate preventive measures.

Download article