Partial Two-stage Exchange for Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Preliminary ReportEkpo, Timothy, E., DO1; Berend, Keith, R., MD1,2,3; Morris, Michael, J., MD1,3; Adams, Joanne, B., BFA1; Lombardi, Adolph, V., Jr, MD1,2,3,a
Background One common approach to the infected total hip arthroplasty (THA) calls for a staged revision, including removal of all components. However, removal of well-fixed femoral components can result in bone loss and compromised fixation; it is not known whether it is effective to leave a well-fixed femoral component in situ, remove only the acetabular component, débride thoroughly, place a spacer, and delay reimplantation.
Questions/purposes The purposes of this study were to determine (1) the frequency of infection recurrence; (2) the frequency of death; and (3) the Harris hip scores of patients treated with a “two-stage partial exchange” approach.
Methods A retrospective analysis from 2000 through January 2011 revealed 19 patients with infected THA treated with partial two-stage exchange including complete acetabular component removal, aggressive soft tissue débridement, retention of the well-fixed femoral stem, placement of an antibiotic-laden cement femoral head on the trunnion of the retained stem, postoperative course of antibiotics, and delayed reimplantation. Indications for this treatment included those patients whose femoral component was determined to be well fixed and its removal would result in significant femoral bone loss and compromise of future fixation. During the study period, this represented 7% (19 of 262) of the patients whom we treated for a chronically infected THA. Minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4 years; range, 2-11 years). None of the 19 patients in this series were lost to followup. We defined failure as recurrence of infection in the same hip or the use of long-term suppressive antibiotics.
Results Two patients (11%), both with prior failure of two-staged treatment of infection, failed secondary to recurrence of infection at an average of 3.3 years. There were no patient deaths within 90 days. The mean Harris hip score was 68 (range, 31-100; best score is 100).
Conclusions Insofar as 89% of patients in this series were clinically free of infection at a minimum of 2 years, we believe partial two-stage exchange may represent an acceptable option for patients with infected THA when femoral component removal would result in significant bone loss and compromise of reconstruction. Further study is required on this approach.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.