The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 36, Issue 2, 550 - 559

Outcomes of Cemented Total Knee Arthroplasty for Secondary Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Boontanapibul, Krit et al.
Knee

Background

Secondary osteonecrosis of the knee (SOK) generally occurs in relatively young patients; at advanced stages of SOK, the only viable surgical option is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a retrospective study to investigate implant survivorship, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complications of contemporary cemented bicompartmental TKA with/without patellar resurfacing for SOK.

Methods

Thirty-eight cemented TKAs in 27 patients with atraumatic SOK, mean age 43 years (17 to 65), were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-four percent had a history of corticosteroid use, and 18% had a history of alcohol abuse. Patellar osteonecrosis was coincidentally found in six knees (16%), and all were asymptomatic without joint collapse. The mean followup was 7 years (2 to 12). Knee Society Score (KSS) and radiographic outcomes were evaluated at 6 weeks, 1 year, then every 2 to 3 years.

Results

Ninety-two percent had implant survivorship free from revision with significant improvement in KSS. Causes of revision included aseptic tibial loosening (one), deep infection (one), and instability with patellofemoral issues (one). Four of six cases also with patellar osteonecrosis received resurfacing, including one with periprosthetic patellar fracture after minor trauma, with satisfactory clinical results after conservative treatment. None of the unrevised knees had progressive radiolucent lines or evidence of loosening. An unresurfaced patella, use of a stem extension or a varus-valgus constrained prosthesis constituted 18%, 8% and 3%, respectively.

Conclusion

Cemented TKAs with selective stem extension in patients with SOK had satisfactory implant survivorship and reliable outcomes. Secondary osteonecrosis of the patella should be carefully evaluated prior to operation.

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