The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 36, Issue 3, 1094 - 1100

Outcomes and Risk Factors Associated With 2-Stage Reimplantation Requiring an Interim Spacer Exchange for Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Klemt, Christian et al.
Hip Knee

Background

Patients undergoing a 2-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) often require a repeat spacer in the interim due to persistent infection. This study aims to report outcomes for patients with repeat spacer exchange and to identify risk factors associated with interim spacer exchange in 2-stage revision arthroplasty.

Methods

A total of 256 consecutive 2-stage revisions for chronic infection of total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty with reimplantation and minimum 2-year follow-up were investigated. An interim spacer exchange was performed in 49 patients (exchange cohort), and these patients were propensity score matched to 196 patients (nonexchange cohort). Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze risk factors for failure of interim spacer exchange.

Results

Patients in the propensity score–matched exchange cohort demonstrated a significantly increased reinfection risk compared to patients without interim spacer exchange (24% vs 15%, P = .03). Patients in the propensity score–matched exchange cohort showed significantly lower postoperative scores for 3 patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score physical function (46.0 vs 54.9, P = .01); knee disability and osteoarthritis outcome score physical function (43.1 vs 51.7, P < .01); and patient-reported outcomes measurement information system physical function short form (41.6 vs 47.0, P = .03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated Charles Comorbidity Index (odds ratio, 1.56; P = .01) and the presence of Enterococcus species (odds ratio, 1.43; P = .03) as independent risk factors associated with 2-stage reimplantation requiring an interim spacer exchange for periprosthetic joint infection.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates that patients with spacer exchange had a significantly higher risk of reinfection at 2 years of follow-up. Additionally, patients with spacer exchange demonstrated lower postoperative PROM scores and diminished improvement in multiple PROM scores after reimplantation, indicating that an interim spacer exchange in 2-stage revision is associated with worse patient outcomes.

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