The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 32, Issue 7, 2239 - 2243

Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange

Ascione, Tiziana et al.
Hip Knee

Background

The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange.

Methods

Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis.

Results

One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureuswas isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P < .001), use of oral therapy (P = .01), and absence of known comorbidities (P = .02) were associated with favorable outcome. Administration of rifampin (P = .99) and results of blood analysis were not predictive of outcome. After multivariate analysis was applied, infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, administration of oral antibiotics, and absence of known comorbidities frequently resulted in favorable outcome.

Conclusion

A favorable outcome in patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage procedure was associated with an infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, absence of known comorbidities, and administration of oral therapy. Therefore, failure rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices.


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