The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 7, S302 - S306

Nationwide Organism Susceptibility Patterns to Common Preoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics: What Are We Covering?

Scott R. Nodzo, K. Keely Boyle, Nicholas B. Frisch
Hip Knee


Many periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are caused by organisms not susceptible to first-generation cephalosporins. We sought to evaluate the national susceptibility patterns of organisms to cefazolin and, or oxacillin, clindamycin, and vancomycin using antibiogram data.


Publically available regional and state antibiograms were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns to commonly infecting gram-positive organisms. The number of isolates tested in each antibiogram and percent of strains susceptible to oxacillin, clindamycin, and vancomycin were recorded. Oxacillin is used as a surrogate to cefazolin in antibiograms. A comparison of antibiotic susceptibilities was performed.


Seven state and 38 regional antibiograms were reviewed. Oxacillin was a sensitive antibiotic in 99.2 ± 4.8% of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates, 0 ± 0% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, 44.5 ± 13.7% of coagulase-negative staphylococcus organism isolates (CNS), and 30.6 ± 10.5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Clindamycin was a sensitive antibiotic in 75.8 ± 8.4% of MSSA isolates, 60.2 ± 13.2% of MRSA isolates, 60.3 ± 11.4% of CNS isolates, and 56.2 ± 6.5% of S epidermidisisolates. Vancomycin was a sensitive antibiotic in 99.9 ± 0.4% of MSSA isolates, 99.8 ± 0.4% of MRSA isolates, 99.8 ± 0.5% of CNS isolates, and 99.6 ± 0.7% of S epidermidis isolates. Clindamycin was significantly less sensitive in MSSA isolates as compared with oxacillin and vancomycin ( P < .0001). Oxacillin was significantly less sensitive in CNS, S epidermidis, and MRSA isolates as compared with clindamycin and vancomycin (P < .0001).


The national clindamycin susceptibility pattern is limited to MSSA and may not have an optimal susceptibility profile suitable for use as a prophylactic antibiotic. Cefazolin continues to have excellent coverage against MSSA.

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