We hypothesized that infection rates following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without hemophilia or drug use would be similar to rates in HIV-negative patients. Records at an urban HIV referral hospital were searched for patients who underwent primary total hip and knee arthroplasty from 2003 to 2010. The primary outcome was revision for infection. 372 HIV-negative and 22 HIV-positive TJA patients met inclusion criteria. The HIV-positive group had more deep infections than the HIV-negative group (9.1% v 2.2%, P = 0.102). There were no infections in those with AIDS-defining CD4 counts. Those with HIV may have a higher risk of developing a deep infection. A low CD4 count is not an absolute contraindication to TJA in HIV positive patients.