Longitudinal changes in patient-reported outcome measures following total hip arthroplasty and predictors of deterioration during follow-upV. P. Galea, P. Rojanasopondist, L. H. Ingelsrud, H. E. Rubash, C. Bragdon, J. I. Huddleston III, H. Malchau, A. Troelsen
The primary aim of this study was to quantify the improvement in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following total hip arthroplasty (THA), as well as the extent of any deterioration through the seven-year follow-up. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of PROM improvement and deterioration.
Patients and Methods
A total of 976 patients were enrolled into a prospective, international, multicentre study. Patients completed a battery of PROMs prior to THA, at three months post-THA, and at one, three, five, and seven-years post-THA. The Harris Hip Score (HHS), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS), the SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS), and the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D) index were the primary outcomes. Longitudinal changes in each PROM were investigated by piece-wise linear mixed effects models. Clinically significant deterioration was defined for each patient as a decrease of one half of a standard deviation (group baseline).
Improvements were noted in each PROM between the preoperative and one-year visits, with one-year values exceeding age-matched population norms. Patients with difficulty in self-care experienced less improvement in HHS (odds ratio (OR) 2.2; p = 0.003). Those with anxiety/depression experienced less improvement in PCS (OR -3.3; p = 0.002) and EQ-5D (OR -0.07; p = 0.005). Between one and seven years, obesity was associated with deterioration in HHS (1.5 points/year; p = 0.006), PCS (0.8 points/year; p < 0.001), and EQ-5D (0.02 points/year; p < 0.001). Preoperative difficulty in self-care was associated with deterioration in HHS (2.2 points/year; p < 0.001). Preoperative pain from other joints was associated with deterioration in MCS (0.8 points/year; p < 0.001). All aforementioned factors were associated with clinically significant deterioration in PROMs (p < 0.035), except anxiety/depression with regard to PCS (p = 0.060).
The present study finds that patient factors affect the improvement and deterioration in PROMs over the medium term following THA. Special attention should be given to patients with risk factors for decreased PROMs, both preoperatively and during follow-up.