The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 5, 877 - 881

Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Mitigates Blood Loss and Morphine Use After Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Laoruengthana, Artit et al.
Knee

Background

Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for blood loss reduction. Given limited evidence on potential relationship between the TXA and improvement of pain control and functional outcome after TKA, this study aimed at comparing the blood loss, pain scores, morphine consumption, and knee flexion across the TXA administration routes.

Methods

The 228 primary TKA were randomized into no TXA use (No-TXA), intra-articular TXA (15 mg/kg) use (IA-TXA), and intravenous TXA (10 mg/kg) use (IV-TXA). A multivariate regression analysis was used for comparing perioperative blood loss (PBL), drain output, average number of units of blood transfused (ANUBT), visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, amount of morphine consumption, and knee flexion angle.

Results

The IA-TXA and IV-TXA group had 193.26 ( P < .01) and 160.30 mL ( P < .01) less PBL than No-TXA, respectively. No-TXA significantly required higher ANUBT than IA-TXA and IV-TXA (P = .03). The IA-TXA group had lower VAS at 6 ( P = .04), 12 (P = .03), and 24 hours ( P = .02) postoperative when compared to No-TXA, while IV-TXA had no effect. The IA-TXA required 18.26 mg less total morphine at 48 hours than No-TXA ( P = .02), whereas IV-TXA used insignificantly (5.31 mg; P = .31) less total morphine at 48 hours than No-TXA. Both TXA routes tended to improve knee flexion, but not statistically significant.

Conclusion

Both IA-TXA and IV-TXA could significantly reduce PBL and ANUBT. The IA-TXA could significantly mitigate VAS and morphine use after TKA. Hence, IA-TXA could minimize blood loss and may be considered as an adjunct to pain control following TKA.

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