The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1368 - 1373

Increased Postoperative Glucose Variability Is Associated With Adverse Outcome Following Two-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Wang, Sheng-Hao et al.
Hip Knee


Glucose variability in the postoperative period has been associated with increased rates of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following primary arthroplasty. It is unknown how postoperative glucose control affects outcome of surgical treatment of PJI patients. We hypothesized that postoperative glucose variability adversely affects the outcome of 2-stage exchange arthroplasty.


We retrospectively reviewed records of 665 patients with PJI of the knee and hip who underwent 2-stage exchange arthroplasty from 2000 to 2017. Of them, 341 PJIs with a minimum follow-up of 1 year, and either a minimum of 2 glucose values per day or greater than 3 overall during the reimplantation were included. Glucose variability was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation. Adverse outcomes included treatment failure according to the Delphi consensuses criteria, reinfection, reoperation, and mortality. A subgroup analysis was performed based on patients with or without diabetes.


Glucose variability following reimplantation was associated with higher treatment failure, reinfection, and reoperation. Adjusted analysis indicated that for every standard deviation (15%) increase in the coefficient of variation, the risks of treatment failure, reinfection, and reoperation increased by 27%, 31%, and 26%. Although stratifying patients with (n = 81) or without diabetes (n = 260), these associations remained robust in nondiabetic patients, but not in diabetic patients.


Higher glucose variability is associated with increased risks of treatment failure, reinfection, and reoperation after 2-stage exchange arthroplasty in PJI patients. Compared to diabetic patients, nondiabetic patients have a higher association between glucose variability and poor outcomes. Reducing adverse outcomes may be achieved with close monitoring and strict postoperative glucose control.

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