The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 32, Issue 3, 948 - 952.e1

In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Shahi, Alisina et al.
Hip Knee

Background

While periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a huge impact on patient function and health, only a few studies have investigated its impact on mortality. The purpose of this large-scale study was to (1) determine the rate and trends of in-hospital mortality for PJI and (2) compare the in-hospital mortality rate of patients with PJI and those undergoing revision arthroplasty for aseptic failure and patients undergoing other nonorthopedic major surgical procedures.

Methods

Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2010 were analyzed to determine the risk of in-hospital mortality for PJI patients compared with aseptic revision arthroplasty. The Elixhauser comorbidity index was used to obtain patient comorbidities. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether PJI and other patient-related factors were associated with mortality.

Results

PJI was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, 2.05; P < .0001) of in-hospital mortality (0.77%) compared with aseptic revisions (0.38%). The in-hospital mortality rate of revision total hip arthroplasties with PJI was higher than those for interventional coronary procedures (1.22%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.24), cholecystectomy (1.13%; 95% CI, 1.11-1.15), kidney transplant (0.70%; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79), and carotid surgery (0.89%; 95% CI, 0.86-0.93).

Conclusion

Patients undergoing treatment for PJI have a 2-fold increase in in-hospital mortality for each surgical admission compared to aseptic revisions. Considering that PJI cases often have multiple admissions and that this analysis is by surgical admission, the risk of mortality will accumulate for every additional surgery. Surgeons should be cognizant of the potentially fatal outcome of PJI and the importance of infection control to reduce the risk of mortality.


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