Impact of a double-layer cementing technique on the homogeneity of cementation and the generation of loose bone cement fragments in tibial unicompartmental knee arthroplastyScheele, C.B., Pietschmann, M.F., Schröder, C. et al.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a single- vs. double-layer cementing technique on morphological cementation and the generation of microscopic cement layers or loose cement fragments in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA).
UKAs were implanted in 12 cadaver knees. The specimens were divided into two groups of comparable bone mineral density. Six UKAs were implanted using a single-layer cementing technique (group A) and six UKAs were implanted using a double-layer cementing technique (group B). Morphological cementation was assessed on nine cuts through the implant–cement–bone interface in the frontal plane. Loose bone cement fragments and the microscopically quality of layer formation were evaluated.
Contact between bone and prosthesis was observed in 45.4% of interfaces in group A and 27.8% in group B (p = 0.126). The significant increase of areas without visible cement interlocking in the anteroposterior direction in group A (p = 0.005) was not evident in group B (p = 0.262). Penetration around the peg tended to occur more frequently in group B (67.5% vs. 90.6% p = 0.091). Scanning electron microscopy identified no evidence of fissure formations within the bilaminar cement mantle. Free bone cement fragments were documented in 66.7% in both groups with no difference concerning mass (p = 1.0).
This in-vitro study showed a tendency towards a more homogenous cementation of tibial UKAs using a double-layer cementing technique, although most of the differences did not reach the level of significance. However, theoretical downsides of the double-layer cementing technique such as an increased formation of free bone fragments or a microscopically fissure formation within the cement layer could not be detected either.