High Complication Rate in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty in Juvenile Idiopathic ArthritisGoodman, Stuart, B., MD, PhD1,a; Hwang, Katherine, MS1; Imrie, Susanna, PT, MS1
Background Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is challenging as a result of the patient’s young age, systemic disease, multiple affected joints, small proportions, and bone loss. The intermediate- to long-term results of these surgeries remain unknown.
Questions/purposes The purpose of this study is to determine the (1) functional outcomes; (2) surgical complications; and (3) frequency of reoperation or revision after revision THA for JIA.
Methods We reviewed the records of all patients from one center who underwent revision THA for JIA who had a minimum of 5 years of followup (mean, 9 years; range, 5-19 years). This resulted in a series of 24 revision THAs in 15 patients. All patients were Charnley Class C. Age at revision averaged 35 years (range, 21-53 years). The 20 acetabular and 12 femoral revision components included 15 cementless cups, five reconstruction/roof rings with a cemented cup, and four cemented and eight cementless femoral stems.
Results The Harris hip scores improved from 54 (range, 34-85) to 77 (range, 37-100) (p < 0.001). Complications included two proximal femoral fractures associated with severe osteolysis and one sciatic nerve palsy in a patient with severe acetabular deficiency. A total of seven hips (29%) required reoperation or revision surgery, including three for infection (one early and two late) and four for mechanical loosening.
Conclusions Revision THA in JIA is very challenging owing to patients’ small proportions and compromised bone stock. The intraoperative and early complication rates are relatively high. Prognosis for long-term survivorship is guarded; limiting factors include periprosthetic osteolysis associated with older implants that used conventional polyethylene and cemented stems.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.