Have large femoral heads reduced prosthetic impingement in total hip arthroplasty?Waddell, B. S., Koch, C., Trivellas, M., Burket, J. C., Wright, T., & Padgett, D. (2019).
Prosthetic impingement is implicated in dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). While use of larger diameter femoral heads reduces the incidence of dislocation, the effect of larger heads upon impingement rate is unknown. We assessed retrieved THA components for evidence of impingement to determine if large femoral heads reduced the rate of impingement in primary THA and what factors might influence impingement.
Liners from 97 primary THAs retrieved at revision arthroplasty were scored for evidence of impingement, defined as wear or deformation on the rim of the component. Component inclination and version were measured from anteroposterior and cross-table lateral radiographs.
Independent of revision diagnosis, 77% of liners demonstrated evidence of impingement. Impingement was less prevalent and less severe as head size increased. Severe impingement was observed in 50% of the liners with 28-mm heads, 15% of liners with 32-mm heads, and 21% of liners with 36-mm heads. Regardless of head size, 76% of liners revised for instability demonstrated impingement. Decreased head-neck ratio, use of an elevated liner, increased length of implantation, and increased version were associated with increased severity of impingement.
We showed that larger head sizes are associated with decreased incidence of impingement on retrieved acetabular liners when compared to smaller head sizes. Larger heads have reduced but not eliminated impingement, which remains a potential source of instability.