The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery - Volume 97 - Issue 6 - p. 455-461

General Compared with Spinal Anesthesia for Total Hip Arthroplasty

Basques Bryce A., BS; Toy Jason O., MD; Bohl Daniel D., MPH; Golinvaux Nicholas S., BA; Grauer Jonathan N., MD
Hip
Background: Total hip arthroplasty may be performed under general or spinal anesthesia. The purpose of the current study was to compare perioperative outcomes between anesthetic types for patients undergoing primary elective total hip arthroplasty.
Methods: Patients who had undergone primary elective total hip arthroplasty from 2010 to 2012 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Operating room times, length of stay, thirty-day adverse events, and readmission were compared between patients who had received general anesthesia and those who had received spinal anesthesia. Propensity-adjusted multivariate analysis was used to control for selection bias and baseline patient characteristics.
Results: A total of 20,936 patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty met inclusion criteria for this study. Of these, 12,752 patients (60.9%) had received general anesthesia and 8184 patients (39.1%) had received spinal anesthesia. On propensity-adjusted multivariate analyses, general anesthesia for total hip arthroplasty was associated with increased operative time (+12 minutes [95% confidence interval, +11 to +13 minutes]; p < 0.001) and postoperative room time (+5 minutes [95% confidence interval, +4 to +6 minutes]; p < 0.001). General anesthesia was also associated with the occurrence of any adverse event (odds ratio, 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.41]; p < 0.001), prolonged postoperative ventilator use (odds ratio, 5.81 [95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 25.06]; p = 0.018), unplanned intubation (odds ratio, 2.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.29]; p = 0.024), stroke (odds ratio, 2.51 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 6.20]; p = 0.046), cardiac arrest (odds ratio, 5.04 [95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 22.07]; p = 0.032), any minor adverse event (odds ratio, 1.35 [95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.45]; p = 0.001), and blood transfusion (odds ratio, 1.34 [95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.45]; p < 0.001). General anesthesia was not associated with any difference in preoperative room time, postoperative length of stay, or readmission.
Conclusions: General anesthesia was associated with an increased rate of adverse events and mildly increased operating room times.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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