Functionally deficient mesenchymal stem cells reside in the bone marrow niche with M2‐macrophages and amyloid‐β protein adjacent to loose total joint implantsBryan S. Margulies Sean D. DeBoyace Adrienne M. Parsons Connor G. Policastro Jessica S.S. Ee Timothy S. Damron
We sought to demonstrate whether there is a difference in the local mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) niche obtained from patients undergoing their first total joint replacement surgery versus those patients undergoing a revision surgery for an failing total joint implant. Bone marrow aspirates collected from patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty were observed to be less clonal and the expression of PDGFRα, CD51, ALCAM, endoglin, CXCL12, nestin, and nucleostemin were decreased. Revision MSC were also less able to commit to an osteoblast‐lineage or an adipocyte‐lineage. Further, in revision MSC, OPG, and IL6 expression were increased. Monocytes, derived from revision whole marrow aspirates, were less capable of differentiating into osteoclasts, the cells implicated in the pathologic degradation of bone. Osteoclasts were also not observed in tissue samples collected adjacent to the implants of revision patients; however, the alternatatively activated M2‐macrophage phenotype was observed in parallel with pathologic accumulations of amyloid‐β, τ‐protien and 3‐nitrotyrosine. Despite the limited numbers of patients examined, our data suggest that nucleostemin may be a useful functional marker for MSC while the observation of M2‐macrophage infiltration around the implant lays the foundation for future investigation into a novel mechanism that we propose is associated with loose total joint implants.