Finite-element analysis of the proximal tibial sclerotic bone and different alignment in total knee arthroplastyLi, YR., Gao, YH., Yang, C. et al.
Despite potential for improving patient outcomes, studies using three-dimensional measurements to quantify proximal tibial sclerotic bone and its effects on prosthesis stability after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to determine: (1) the distribution range of tibial sclerotic bone in patients with severe genu varum using three-dimensional measurements, (2) the effect of the proximal tibial sclerotic bone thickness on prosthesis stability according to finite-element modelling of TKA with kinematic alignment (KA), mechanical alignment (MA), and 3° valgus alignment, and (3) the effect of short extension stem augment utilization on prosthesis stability.
The sclerotic bone in the medial tibial plateau of 116 patients with severe genu varum was measured and classified according to its position and thickness. Based on these cases, finite-element models were established to simulate 3 different tibial cut alignments with 4 different thicknesses of the sclerotic bone to measure the stress distribution of the tibia and tibial prosthesis, the relative micromotion beneath the stem, and the influence of the short extension stem on stability.
The distribution range of proximal tibial sclerotic bone was at the anteromedial tibial plateau. The models were divided into four types according to the thickness of the sclerotic bone: 15 mm, 10 mm, 5 mm, and 0 mm. The relative micromotion under maximum stress was smallest after MA with no sclerotic bone (3241 μm) and largest after KA with 15 mm sclerotic bone (4467 μm). Relative micromotion was largest with KA and smallest with MA in sclerotic models with the same thickness. Relative micromotion increased as thickness of the sclerotic bone increased with KA and MA (R = 0.937, P = 0.03 and R = 0.756, P = 0.07, respectively). Relative micromotion decreased with short extension stem augment in the KA model when there was proximal tibial sclerotic bone.
The influence of proximal tibial sclerotic bone on prosthesis’s stability is significant, especially with KA tibial cut. Tibial component’s short extension stem augment can improve stability.