Factors affecting the incidence of postoperative periprosthetic fractures following primary and revision hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysisBissias, C., Kaspiris, A., Kalogeropoulos, A. et al.
The increasing number of hip arthroplasties (HA), due to the growing elderly population, is associated with the risk of femoral periprosthetic fractures (FPFs). The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for the development of FPFs after HA.
A systematic review was conducted in five data bases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Cinahl, ICTRP) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines up to May 2019, using the key words “risk factor,” “periprosthetic fracture,” and “hip replacement or arthroplasty.” Meta-analysis of the clinical outcomes of HA and subgroup analysis based on the factors that were implicated in FPFs was performed.
Sixteen studies were included (sample size: 599,551 HA patients, 4253 FPFs, incidence 0.71%). Risk factors statistically associated with increased incidence of FPFs were female gender (+ 40%), previous revision arthroplasty surgery (× 3 times), and the presence of rheumatoid arthritis (× 2.1 times), while osteoarthritis (− 57%), cement application (− 59%), and insertion of Biomet (− 68%) or Thompson’s prosthesis (− 75%) were correlated with low prevalence of FPFs. Obesity, cardiac diseases, advanced age, bad general health (ASA grade ≥ 3), and use of Exeter or Lubinus prosthesis were not linked to the appearance of FPFs.
This meta-analysis suggested that female gender, rheumatoid arthritis, and revision arthroplasty are major risk factors for the development of FPFs after a HA. In those patients, frequent follow-ups should be planned. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify all the risk factors contributing to the appearance of FPFs after HA.