Thirty-two randomized controlled studies were included. LMWH provided better protection against VTE than placebo. In both TKA and THA patients, the rates of VTE were lower with factor Xa inhibitors than LMWH. In THA patients, the rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was lower with factor Xa inhibitors than LMWH. In TKA patients, the rates of VTE and DVT were similar between LMWH and direct thrombin inhibitors. In THA patients, the rate of VTE was lower with direct thrombin inhibitors than with LMWH, while the DVT rates were similar. The pulmonary embolism rates were similar between all 3 classes of drugs in TKA and THR patients, as were the major bleeding rates. Nonmajor and minor bleeding rates were also similar between the 3 drug classes.