The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 7 , 2100 - 2110

Extrinsic Factors as Component Positions to Bone and Intrinsic Factors Affecting Postoperative Rotational Limb Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Mochizuki, Tomoharu et al.


This study aimed to identify the factors affecting postoperative rotational limb alignment of the tibia relative to the femur. We hypothesized that not only component positions but also several intrinsic factors were associated with postoperative rotational limb alignment.


This study included 99 knees (90 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 77 ± 6 years. A three-dimensional (3D) assessment system was applied under weight-bearing conditions to biplanar long-leg radiographs using 3D-to-2D image registration technique. The evaluation parameters were (1) component position; (2) preoperative and postoperative coronal, sagittal, and rotational limb alignment; (3) preoperative bony deformity, including femoral torsion, condylar twist angle, and tibial torsion; and (4) preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM).


In multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise procedure, postoperative rotational limb alignment was associated with the following: (1) rotation of the component position (tibia: β = 0.371, P < .0001; femur: β = −0.327, P < .0001), (2) preoperative rotational limb alignment (β = 0.253, P = .001), (3) postoperative flexion angle (β = 0.195, P = .007), and (4) tibial torsion (β = 0.193, P = .010).


In addition to component positions, the intrinsic factors, such as preoperative rotational limb alignment, ROM, and tibial torsion, affected postoperative rotational limb alignment. On a premise of correct component positions, the intrinsic factors that can be controlled by surgeons should be taken care. In particular, ROM is necessary to be improved within the possible range to acquire better postoperative rotational limb alignment.

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