The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 11, 2724 - 2729

Extended Antibiotic Prophylaxis Confers No Benefit Following Aseptic Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched Case-Controlled Study

Kuo, Feng-Chih et al.
Hip

Background

Administration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is one of the most important practices for prevention of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is common to continue perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for 48 hours or longer in patients undergoing revision arthroplasty, until results of intraoperative culture samples become available. However, the utility of this practice remains unclear. We examined whether extended antibiotic prophylaxis following aseptic revision THA reduces the risk of subsequent PJI.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed records of patients undergoing aseptic revision THA between January 2000 and December 2015. At our institution, some surgeons administer prophylactic antibiotics to revision patients for only 24 hours while others prefer to extend until intraoperative culture results become available. We matched 209 patients undergoing revision THA who received extended antibiotic prophylaxis (>24 hours) in a 1:1 ratio with 209 patients receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis (≤24 hours). The matching criteria were age, sex, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, and operative time.

Results

The incidence of subsequent PJI was 4.8% in patients receiving extended antibiotic prophylaxis vs 2.4% in patients receiving standard. After adjusting for all cofounders and using multivariate logistic regression, the administration of extended prophylactic antibiotics did not reduce the incidence of subsequent infection. When stratified by postoperative antibiotic regimens, the 2 groups had similar infection-free implant survival rate (95.2% in extended and 97.6% in standard).

Conclusion

It appears that extending perioperative prophylactic antibiotics until intraoperative culture results become available in patients undergoing revision THA for aseptic failures does not provide any additional benefit in terms of reducing the risk of subsequent PJI.

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