The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 28, Issue 8, 1274 - 1277

Efficacy of Multimodal Perioperative Analgesia Protocol With Periarticular Medication Injection in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Kelley, Todd C. et al.
Knee

Pain control is necessary for successful rehabilitation and outcome after total knee arthroplasty. Our goal was to compare the clinical efficacy of periarticular injections consisting of a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine) and epinephrine with and without combinations of an α2-adrenergic agonist (clonidine) and/or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ketorolac). In a double-blinded controlled study, we randomized 160 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty to receive 1 of 4 intraoperative periarticular injections: Group A, ropivacaine, epinephrine, ketorolac, and clonidine; Group B, ropivacaine, epinephrine, and ketorolac; Group C, ropivacaine, epinephrine, and clonidine; Group D (control), ropivacaine and epinephrine. Compared with Group D, Group A and B patients had significantly lower postoperative visual analog pain scores and nurse pain assessment and Group C patients had a significantly greater reduction in physical therapist pain assessment. We found no differences in other parameters analyzed.


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