J Orthop Surg Res 13, 94 (2018).

Effects of reinforcing materials on durability of bone cement: in vitro experimental study

Karakus, O., Karaman, O., Gurer, B. et al.
Hip Knee


Bone cement is one of the most commonly used products in orthopedic surgery. Among common indications for its use are total joint replacement, bone and joint reconstructions, fracture fixation, treatment of bone infections, and treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Endurance is still questionable. The aim of our study is to find out the effect of structure strengtheners on compression pressure measurements of bone cement.


There were four groups in this study: group 1, 40 cm3 pure bone cement (PMMA); group 2, 40 cm3 bone cement with %25 titanium dust; group 3, 40 cm3 bone cement with %25 steel dust; and group 4, 40 cm3 bone cement with %25 silica fume mixtures were prepared. These mixtures were frozen in 6-mm-width, 12-mm-height molds in cylindrical shape. Axial compression was made to these molds.


Compression pressure measurements of the pure cement group ranged between 79.2 and 81.1 MPa; average was 80.25 ± 0.42 MPa. Measurements of titanium-added group ranged from 79.5 to 81.2 MPa; average was 80.46 ± 0.68 MPa. Steel-added group ranged from 79 to 82.2 MPa; average was 80.73 ± 0.57 MPa. For silica fume, measurements ranged from 89.1 to 91.4 MPa and average was 90.41 ± 0.57 MPa. The highest compression pressure values were gathered from the silica fume (p = 0.001).


The construction reinforcer silica fume could be mixed with PMMA homogeneously and was superior to the other biocompatible materials that we had used in compression pressure tests. Beyond dispute, silica fume is a reinforcer which also increases the strength of the bone cement.

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