The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 9, 2091 - 2095.e1

Effect of Antibiotic-Impregnated Bone Cement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

Anis, Hiba K. et al.
Knee

Background

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of commercially available antibiotic-impregnated bone cement (AIBC) on (1) prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and (2) surgical site infections (SSIs) after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

A review of primary TKAs between 2014 and 2017 from an institutional database was conducted. This identified 12,541 cases which were separated into AIBC (n = 4337) and non-AIBC (8,164) cohorts. Medical records were reviewed for PJIs and SSIs (mean 2-year postoperative period). Infection rates between the cohorts were compared with univariate analyses followed by subanalysis of high risk patients (defined as having 2 or more of the following characteristics: >65 years, body mass index >40, or Charlson Comorbidity Index score >3). To control for confounders, multivariate analyses were performed with regression models adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities, year, operative times, and lengths of stay.

Results

On univariate analysis, PJI rates were higher in the AIBC cohort (1.0%) compared to the non-AIBC cohort (0.5%, P < .001). Subanalysis of the high risk patients also showed that PJI rates were higher in the AIBC cohort (1.9% vs 0.6%, P < .01). After adjusting for potential confounders, no significant associations between PJIs and AIBC use were found (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.9-2.3, P = .133). Similarly, no significant differences in SSI rates were observed between the AIBC (2.9%) and non-AIBC cohorts (2.4%, P = .060) and no significant associations between SSIs and AIBC were found with multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval CI 0.8-1.3, P = .948).

Conclusion

This study found that there was no clinically or statistically significant decrease in infection rates with AIBC in primary TKAs.

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