Journal of Orthopaedic Research Volume 37, Issue 10 p. 2163-2171

Early Changes in Cement–Bone Fixation Using a Novel Rat Knee Replacement Model

Kenneth A. Mann Mark A. Miller Richard L. Amendola Karen I. Cyndari Jason A. Horton Timothy A. Damron Megan E. Oest

Trabecular resorption from interdigitated regions between cement and bone has been found in postmortem‐retrieved knee replacements, but the viability of interdigitated bone, and the mechanism responsible for this bone loss is not known. In this work, a Sprague–Dawley (age 12 weeks) rat knee replacement model with an interdigitated cement–bone interface was developed. Morphological and cellular changes in the interdigitated region of the knee replacement over time (0, 2, 6, or 12 weeks) were determined for ovariectomy (OVX) and Sham OVX treatment groups. Interdigitated bone volume fraction (BV/TV) increased with time for Sham OVX (0.022 BV/TV/wk) and OVX (0.015 BV/TV/wk) group, but the rate of increase was greater for the Sham OVX group (p = 0.0064). Tissue mineral density followed a similar increase with time in the interdigitated regions. Trabecular resorption, when it did occur, started at the cement border with medullary‐adjacent bone in the presence of osteoclasts. There was substantial loss of viable bone (~80% empty osteocyte lacunae) in the interdigitated regions. Pre‐surgical fluorochrome labels remained in the interdigitated regions, and did not diminish with time, indicating that the bone was not remodeling. There was also some evidence of continued surface mineralization in the interdigitated region after cementing of the knee, but this diminished over time. Statement of clinical significance: Interdigitated bone with cement provides mechanical stability for success of knee replacements. Improved understanding of the fate of the interdigitated bone over time could lead to a better understanding of the loosening process and interventions to prevent loss of fixation. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 37:2163–2171, 2019

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