The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 7 , S162 - S166

Does Parkinson Disease Increase the Risk of Perioperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Nationwide Database Study

Newman, Jared M. et al.
Hip

Background

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States, affecting over 1 million people. As part of the disease process, PD can cause poor bone quality and other musculoskeletal problems that can affect a patient’s quality of life. With advances in treatment, PD patients can be more active and may be candidates for total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there is a paucity of literature on the outcomes of THA in PD patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the perioperative outcomes of PD patients who underwent THA. Specifically, we assessed: (1) perioperative surgical and medical complications; (2) lengths of stay (LOSs); and (3) total hospital charges.

Methods

Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, patients who had PD and underwent THA between 2002 and 2013 were identified. With the use of propensity scores, PD patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio to patients without PD by the year of surgery, age, gender, race, Charlson/Deyo score, and insurance type. This yielded a total of 10,519 PD and 31,679 non-PD THA patients. Regression analyses were used to compare the risk of perioperative complications (any, surgical, medical), the percent differences in mean LOS, and the percent differences in total hospital charges.

Results

Compared with the matched cohort, PD patients had a 52% higher risk for any complication (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.69), a 30% higher risk for any surgical complication (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 0.88-1.91), and a 54% higher risk for any medical complication (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.38-1.71). Specifically, PD patients were more likely to have postoperative delirium (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.77-3.85), altered mental status (OR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.35-6.71), urinary tract infection (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), and blood transfusion (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.44-1.82). Also, PD patients had a mean LOS that was 8.57% longer (P < .0001), and mean total hospital charges that were 3.85% higher (P < .0001).

Conclusion

Orthopedic surgeons and neurologists should be involved in the preoperative counseling of PD patients regarding their potential increased risks associated with THA, which could help optimize their preoperative care. Furthermore, the risk of complications and higher costs could potentially lead to the development of different reimbursement methods in this population of patients.


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