The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 7, S348 - S351

Dependent Functional Status is a Risk Factor for Perioperative and Postoperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty

Gannon L. Curtis, Aws Hammad, Hiba K. Anis, Carlos A. Higuera, Bryan E. Little, Hussein F. Darwiche
Hip

Background

As the population ages, the need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) will increase. However, this will be associated with an increase in comorbidities and a decrease in the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADLs). This study was designed to evaluate the impact preoperative functional status has on short-term outcomes after THA.

Methods

Primary THAs performed from 2012 to 2016 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Final analysis included 115,590 cases. Patients who could perform all ADLs were classified as independent functional status (n = 113,436), and patients requiring assistance with ADLs were classified as dependent functional status (n = 2154). Univariate analysis was used to compare perioperative outcomes and 30-day complication rates. Multivariate regression was then applied to determine if preoperative dependent functional status was an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes.

Results

Functionally dependent patients were more likely to experience operative times >120 minutes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; P < .001), hospital stays >10 days (OR = 2.96; P < .001), and nonhome discharge (OR = 2.53; P < .001). Dependent functional status was also an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.00; P = .001), reoperation (OR = 1.39; P = .015), readmission (OR = 1.75; P < .001), superficial surgical site infection (OR = 1.96; P = .002), wound dehiscence (OR = 2.72; P = .034), pneumonia (OR = 2.16; P = .001), reintubation (OR = 2.31; P = .007), prolonged ventilator use (OR = 3.01; P = .009), renal failure necessitating dialysis (OR = 3.94; P = .002), urinary tract infection (OR = 1.78; P = .001), blood transfusion (OR = 1.75; P< .001), and sepsis (OR = 2.38; P = .001).

Conclusions

Functionally dependent patients undergoing THA are at higher risk of mortality, adverse perioperative outcomes, and complications. These data may aid for patient counseling and risk stratification.

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