The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 32, Issue 5, 1488 - 1495

Correcting Severe Varus Deformity Using Trial Components During Total Knee Arthroplasty

Kim, Man S. et al.
Knee

Background

Extensive medial soft tissue release may be necessary to correct severe varus deformity during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, this procedure may result in instability. Here, we describe a novel soft tissue balancing technique, which can minimize medial release in severe varus deformity during TKA.

Methods

Fifty knees (40 patients) with hip-knee-ankle angle of more than 20° of varus were corrected using this technique (group 1). After achieving flexion gap balancing by needle puncturing and spreading of the superficial medial collateral ligament, extension gap balancing was obtained by gradual extension with the trial components in place. After group 1 was set, a one-to-one patient-matched control group who had mild varus deformity was selected by propensity score matching (50 knees, 48 patients, group 2). At postoperative 1 year, mediolateral laxity was compared between the 2 groups using the stress radiographs. Clinical outcomes were also compared using the Knee Society Score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score.

Results

There were no differences in mean medial and lateral laxities between groups 1 and 2 at 1 year after the operation (medial laxity: 2.3° ± 1.4° and 2.7° ± 1.3°, respectively, P = .310) (lateral laxity: 3.6° ± 1.7° and 3.2° ± 2.0°, respectively, P = .459). There were no significant differences in postoperative clinical scores and knee alignment.

Conclusion

Our technique of obtaining extension gap balancing using trial components led to safe and effective balancing by avoiding unnecessary extensive release in severe varus deformity during TKA.


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