Computerized 3D morphological analysis of glenoid orientationSoheil Ghafurian Balazs Galdi Sevag Bastian Virak Tan Kang Li
An accurate preoperative measurement of glenoid orientation is crucial for evaluating pathologies and successful total shoulder arthroplasty. Existing methods may be labor‐intensive, observer‐dependent, and sensitive to the misalignment between the scapula plane and CT scanning direction. In this study, we proposed a computation framework and performed an automated analysis of the glenoid orientation based on 3D surface data. Three‐dimensional models of 12 scapulae were analyzed. The glenoid cavity and external anatomical features were automatically extracted from these 3D models. Glenoid version was calculated using the scapula plane and the fulcrum axis alternatively. Glenoid inclination was measured both relative to transverse axis of the scapula and the medial pole‐inferior tip axis. The mean (±SD) of the fulcrum‐based glenoid version was −0.55° (±4.17°), while the scapular‐plane‐based glenoid version was −5.05° (±3.50°). The mean (±SD) of glenoid inclinations based on the medial pole and inferior tip was 12.75° (±5.03°) while the mean (±SD) of the glenoid inclination based on the medial pole and glenoid center was 4.63° (±4.86°). Our computational framework was able to extract the reproducible morphological measures free of inter‐ and intra‐ observer variability. For the first time in 3D, we showed that the fulcrum axis was practically perpendicular to the glenoid plane normal (radial line), and thus extended the fulcrum‐based glenoid version for quantifying 3D glenoid orientation.