The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 31, Issue 10, 2085 - 2090

Comparing In-Hospital Total Joint Arthroplasty Outcomes and Resource Consumption Among Underweight and Morbidly Obese Patients

Sayeed, Zain et al.
Hip Knee

Background

As orthopedic surgeons search for objective measures that predict total joint arthroplasty (TJA) outcomes, body mass index may aid in risk stratification. The purpose of this study was to compare in-hospital TJA outcomes and resource consumption amongst underweight (body mass index ≤19 kg/m2) and morbidly obese patients (≥40 kg/m2).

Methods

Discharge data from 2006 to 2012 National Inpatient Sample were used for this study. A total of 1503 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 956 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients were divided into 2 cohorts, underweight (≤19 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (≥40 kg/m2). Patients were matched by gender and 27 comorbidities by use of Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Patients were compared for 13 in-hospital postoperative complications, length of stay, total hospital charge, and disposition. Multivariate analyses were generated by SAS software. Significance was assigned at P value <.05.

Results

Underweight patients undergoing primary TJA had higher risk for developing postoperative anemia compared with morbidly obese patients (TKA: odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% CI, 2.3-4.1; THA: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3). Underweight THA candidates displayed greater risk for deep venous thrombosis (75.36% vs 24.64%; OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1-8.4). Underweight TJA patients were charged more (TKA: USD 51,368.90 vs USD 40,128.80, P = .001, THA: USD 57,451.8 vs USD 42,776.9, P < .001) compared to the morbidly obese patients. Length of stay was significantly longer for underweight THA patients (4.6 days vs 3.5 days, P = .008) compared to morbidly obese counterparts.

Conclusion

Our results indicate underweight, compared to morbidly obese, TJA patients are at a greater risk for postoperative anemia and consume more resources.


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