The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 7, 1458 - 1461

Comparative Study of Antibiotic Elution Profiles From Alternative Formulations of Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement

Meeker, Daniel G. et al.
Hip

Background

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is commonly used in orthopedic surgery for implant fixation and local antibiotic delivery following surgical debridement. The incidence of nephrotoxicity necessitates the balance of antiinfective properties with the potential for toxicity. Thus, understanding antibiotic elution characteristics of different PMMA formulations is essential. We sought to address this by assessing elution of vancomycin, daptomycin, and tobramycin from Palacos LV (Palacos), Stryker Surgical Simplex P (Simplex), BIOMET Cobalt HV (Cobalt), and Zimmer Biomet Bone Cement R (Zimmer) radiopaque bone cements.

Methods

Antibiotics were mixed with each cement formulation, and molds were used to produce beads of cement. Beads were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C, and antibiotic elution was measured daily for 10 days with vancomycin and 5 days with daptomycin and tobramycin. Active antibiotic was quantified by serial dilution and comparison to the minimum inhibitory concentration.

Results

The elution profiles of Simplex were significantly lower than all other cements with all antibiotics ( P < .00093). Palacos exhibited a significantly higher vancomycin elution profile than all other cements ( P < .00001). The difference in daptomycin elution profiles for Cobalt and Palacos was not significant ( P > .43), but both were significantly higher than Zimmer ( P < .0006).

Conclusion

Overall, Stryker Surgical Simplex P exhibits a significantly lower elution profile than all other cements tested. In general, Palacos LV exhibits an increased elution profile compared with other cements. This elution information may assist the surgeon in choosing different cement formulations for the local delivery of antibiotics.

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