The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 8, 1740 - 1748

Central Sensitization Is a Risk Factor for Persistent Postoperative Pain and Dissatisfaction in Patients Undergoing Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

Kim, Man S. et al.
Knee

Background

The objective of this study is to investigate whether central sensitization (CS) was associated with patient dissatisfaction after revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

Between 2012 and 2016, 68 cases (68 patients) of revision TKA performed by a single surgeon were included in this study with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patients were categorized into 2 groups by 40-point preoperative Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) scores. The control group consisted of 48 patients (48 knees) with CSI scores of less than 40 points, while the CS group consisted of 20 patients (20 knees) with CSI scores of 40 points or more. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using an 11-point visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the satisfaction items of the new Knee Society Scores, where scores ≥20 indicated satisfaction.

Results

Higher preoperative pain VAS scores in the CS group were maintained 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively (all P < .05). The CS group showed significantly worse pain, function subscores, and total scores of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. Forty-four (91.7%) patients in the control group and 3 (15.0%) patients in the CS group were satisfied with their revision TKAs ( P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of dissatisfaction after revision TKAs were increased 39.081 times (95% confidence interval 6.926-220.504, P < .001) in patients with CSI scores ≥40. Higher VAS intensity 2 years postoperatively also predicted dissatisfaction following revision TKA (odds ratio 1.864, 95% confidence interval 1.086-3.199, P = .024).

Conclusion

CS is a risk factor for persistent postoperative pain and dissatisfaction in patients undergoing revision TKAs.

Level of Evidence

III.

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