The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of enoxaparin in preventing venous and arterial thromboembolism related events after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients. Four hundred twenty nine patients (621 TKAs) did not receive thromboprophylaxis after TKA and 907 patients (1,336 TKAs) received enoxaparin after the procedure. We assessed clinically significant venous and arterial thromboembolism related events and bleeding complications. Total thromboembolism related events occurred in 13 patients (3.03%) without thromboprophylaxis and 17 patients (1.87%) with enoxaparin (P = 0.183). Our study showed that the incidence of clinically significant thromboembolism related events after TKA was very low in Asian patients. Enoxaparin had no benefits in reducing thromboembolism related events in Asian patients.