Antibiotic therapy alone does not have a high success rate in cases of unexpected positive cultures in intraoperative samples from hip and knee prosthesis revision. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 21, 786 (2020).

Antibiotic therapy alone does not have a high success rate in cases of unexpected positive cultures in intraoperative samples from hip and knee prosthesis revision

Fink, B., Schlumberger, M.
Hip Knee

Background

Unexpectedly positive bacterial cultures during prosthesis revision surgery still occur on occasion despite good preoperative diagnostics. In such cases a six-week antibiotic therapy without further surgical intervention is recommended. The aim of this study was to find out how successful this procedure is.

Methods

In a study of 508 patients, who required revision surgery of total hip (THA, n = 231) or knee arthroplasties (TKA, n = 277) because of component loosening, biopsy was carried out before their surgery. The collected tissue samples (5) from the biopsy and the revision surgery procedure itself were analyzed according the criteria of the International Consensus Meeting (ICM). Tests revealed 11 patients (7 THA, 4 TKA) with unexpectedly positive bacterial cultures from tissue samples obtained during the revision surgery due to false negative preoperative diagnostic results. These 11 patients were treated with 6 weeks antibiotic therapy and examined with a follow-up of at least 2 years (42.2 ± 16.5 months).

Results

Five patients (2 TKA, 3 THA) became reinfected, resulting in a success rate of 54.5%.

Conclusion

Antibiotic therapy alone of an unexpected positive intraoperative bacterial culture in prosthesis revision surgery seems to be less successful than previously assumed.


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