Anti‐biofilm activity of sub‐inhibitory povidone‐iodine concentrations against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureusKayode O. Oduwole Aaron A. Glynn Diarmuid C. Molony David Murray Sarah Rowe Linda M. Holland Damian J. McCormack James P. O'Gara
Biomaterial‐related infections continue to hamper the success of reconstructive and arthroplasty procedures in orthopaedic surgery. Staphylococci are the most common etiologic agents, with biofilm formation representing a major virulence factor. Biofilms increase bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. In staphylococci, production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) by the enzyme products of the icaADBC operon is the best understood mechanism of biofilm development, making the ica genes a potential target for biofilm inhibitors. In this study we report that the antibacterial agent povidone‐iodine (PI) also has anti‐biofilm activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus at sub‐inhibitory concentrations (p < 0.001). Inhibition of biofilm by PI correlated with decreased transcription of the icaADBC operon, which in turn correlated with activation of the icaR transcriptional repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis. These data reveal an additional therapeutic benefit of PI and suggest that studies to evaluate suitability of PI as biomaterial coating agent to reduce device‐related infections are merited.