The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 32, Issue 1, 320 - 325

Allogeneic Blood Transfusion Is a Significant Risk Factor for Surgical-Site Infection Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

Kim, Jeong Lae et al.
Hip Knee

Background

Blood loss occurs significantly more frequently during total hip and knee arthroplasty than among any other type of orthopedic operation, which can sometimes lead to requiring a blood transfusion. Although allogeneic blood transfusion has been identified as a risk factor for postoperative surgical-site infection following arthroplasty, results are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to investigate whether having an allogeneic blood transfusion significantly increases the risk for surgical-site infection, particularly after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

Methods

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using random-effect models. Using an electronic database search, we selected 6 studies that included data on 21,770 patients and among these studies compared the postoperative infection rate between an allogeneic blood-transfusion exposure group and a nonexposure group. We calculated the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the groups.

Results

The prevalences of surgical-site infections in our pooled analyses were 2.88% and 1.74% for the transfusion and nontransfusion groups, respectively. The allogeneic blood transfusion group had a significantly higher frequency of surgical-site infections based on pooled analysis using a random-effect model (pooled odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.40, P = .002).

Conclusion

Allogeneic blood transfusion is a significant risk factor for increasing the surgical-site infection rate after total hip and knee arthroplasty.


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